Este curioso documento, que tiene como transfondo la destrucción de la Armada Invencible en 1588, documenta el miedo inglés a un nuevo ataque español. Con el motivo de la captura de Cádiz en 1596, Felipe II decidió atacar Inglaterra, para lo que empezó a preparar una nueva flota en El Ferrol. Inglaterra reunió una flota bajo el mando de Essex y Raleigh para destruir la armada de El Ferrol. La flota inglesa partió en julio de 1597 pero debido a una tormenta tuvo que regresar a puerto; recuperada, alcanzó El Ferrol, aunque no tuvo éxito en atacar la flota española. El documento insiste en los contacto hispano-iralandeses en contra de los intereses ingleses. También bajo el mismo reinado de Isabel I se documentan numerosos textos en forma de edictos, con los títulos de ´declaración de las causas´ o ´declaración de las causas justas de guerra´, de los que ofrecemos una muestra varia en textos subsiguientes.

Antonio Cortijo Ocaña
Aleksandra Jovanovich
University of California, Santa Barbara

A / DECLARATION / OF THE IVST CAV- / SES MOOVING HER / Maiestie to send a Nauie and / Armie to the Seas and / toward Spaine. / Imprinted at London by the De- / puties of Christopher Barker, Prin- / ter to the Queenes most excellent / Maiestie. / Anno Dom. 1597.

[1] A Declaration of the iust causes mooving the Queenes Maiestie to send a navie and armie to the seas and towards Spaine.

    Although the Queenes Maiestie as a soveraigne Prince and Queene is not (for respect of any person) bounde to make accompte or declare to the world the causes for iustification of any her publike actions, yet least any sinister or doubtfull interpretation should be made by the diversitie of opinions, either of strangers or of her owne naturall [2] subiects, of her
present preparations of a navy and an army now committed to the Earle of Essex as her generall with divers noble men and other persons of credite and reputation to serve with him both by sea and land; her Maiestie would have it understood for a very trueth that shee is mooved hereunto onely for defence of the state of her owne kingdomes and people against the apparant preparations of great forces put in readinesse by the king of Spaine to offend her Maiestie sundry wayes, and specially to invade her realme of Ireland; in which desseigne he was so farre proceeded in the beginning of this last winter, that he had awaited together as great number of ships to serve in the said action as he could furnish from all parts of his dominions or could recover by imbarging all other ships of service which came for trade into Spaine or Portugall. And yet such was the providence of God, contrary to that King´s hope and intention ( by hastning of his enterprise in a time unlooked for) to surprise some place in England or Ireland before her Maiestie could have had her owne force in readinesse, shee still providing ( but that shee  is dayly provoked) to have lived in peace, which shee professed to with both to her selfe and all christendome as it pleased him who from hea[3]ven with Justice beholdeth all mens purposes, condemning the tyrannous disturbers of the worlde and comforting such as for peace withstand violence) suddenly and most strangely to drowne and make unserviceable divers of his best ships of warre being under sayle comming from Lisbone and very neere to the destined haven of Ferroll with destruction of no small numbers of soldiers and mariners. Amongst which many of those Irish rebels of all sortes of professions both tituler bishops and other Irish people that were entertained in Spaine to have accompanied either that navie or some part thereof into Ireland, where also cast away. By which manifest acte of Almighty God that Armie was so weakened as the same coulde not put to the seas, according to his former desseigne; and yet neverthelesse, as it manifestly hath appeared, the king of Spaine not being warned by this iust punishment by God´s ordinance, without resistanceby any outward force, but forgetting howe by the favour of Almighty God, his proud navie in the yeere eightie eight was overthrowen by our forces, and not withstanding his losse at Cales by her Maiestie´s armie, which shee was in like sort constrained for her safetie to defeate (all being but the preparatives to some dangerous action against her) such is [4] still his malice (although he finde that both by God and man he is impeached  in his iniust pretences) as he hath hastened  to make all maner of new preparations of shipping, and of men and bictual, and munitions, greater than all Spaine and Portugall  coulde  yeeld,  and therefore hath sent into Italie, and to the East Countreyes for all things necessarie to repaire his armie at Ferroll to pursue his former purpose, and in the meane
time hath sent certaine  captaines in sundry small vessels, with a remnant of some Irish fugitives, into Ireland to animate the rebels to be obstinate in their rebellion untill hee might send them succours, not onely feeding the principals with hope of vaine cities and dignities, but plainely avowing the usurpation of the whole realme for himselfe, to the deprivation of her Maiestie´s crowne and state of that kingdome, a matter so farre knowen and prooved as besides that it is most notorious that his army was in October last on the high way towards their iourney, the capitall Craytour Tyrone himselfe hath sent to her governour of that realme, a letter signed with the king of Spaine´s owne name to the purposes aforesaide. Nowe then that these the king of Spaine´s actions and purposes are manifestly knowen,  and the reparation of his navy dayly [5] laboured, and an army newly levyed with all necessaries of victual and munition brought Ferroll fit for such an enterprise so as his sending to the seas (as soone as those difficulties are overcome) is dayly expected and so publikely divulged without giving colour for any other purpose; and seeing her Maiestie doeth finde the rebels in Ireland perfill still in generall expectation to be relieved with Spanish navie; her Maiestie of her princely providence for the safetie of both her kingdomes doth appeale to all the world whether shee be not necessarily inforced to send out this army to the seas to resist  and  divert all acts of hostilitie which that army of Spaine might nowe this sommer time attempt against either of her realmes of England or Ireland, her navy being compounded of a competent number of her maiestie´s owne shippes of warre without burdening of her subiects for service with their port ships (as in former times) but retaining the admirall of her kingdome in readines with the rest of her royall shippes to withstand all other accidents that might appeare dangerous in these parts
neere her. To all which courses her excellent Maiestie being thus provoked this her purpose may and ought not onely to be allowed but favoured,  and furthered by all Christian princes, states and [6] people, the fame being so affected generally by her owne subiects as she is iustly moved to denie the sutes of great numbers of her nobilitie and  valiant gentlemen who having importuned her for leave to serve as voluntaries in this voyage shee hath stayed great part of them to doe her service at home. And therefore little doubteth, but by continuance of God´s favour (whereof shee hath by sundry speciall and notable blessings had singular demonstration) to preserve her kingdomes by her forces, thus timely provided and shadowed under the favour of Almighty God, who hath hithereto and will hereafter see these Spanish proude and uniust attempts made frustrate, whereby the king may by chastisement of the Almightie God of hostes bee induced to live in peace with his neighbours, which all iust rinces propound for an ende of all their Martiall actions.